Monday, April 20, 2015
Authors Posts by Vimalatharani M

Vimalatharani M


 Researchers said at a World Homeopathy Summit in New Delhi that Homeopathic medicine made from venom of snake can arrest spread of HIV.

Research by doctors of Hyderabad-based JSPS Government Homeopathic Medical College and Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) has positively shown that a  homeopathic medicine prepared from Rattle snake venom, Crotalus Horridus, can arrest the multiplication of HIV.

The Central Council for Research in Homeopathy (CCRH), a government body under AYUSH, partnering with Global Homeopathy Foundation organised the two-day summit where scientists and practitioners from India and abroad took part. Dr Praveen Kumar, Head of Department of Practice of Medicine at JSPS College says, Transcriptase which is an enzyme utilised by viruses like HIV and Hepatitis-B to convert the viral RNA into viral DNA so that they multiply into billions, is inhibited by the Homeopathic medicine Crotallus Horridus.

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A new research has suggested that physical and mental activities rely on a single metabolic protein that controls the flow of blood and nutrients throughout the body.

Ronald Evans, director of Salk’s Gene Expression Laboratory said that this was all about getting energy where the heart and muscles needed a surge of energy to carry out exercise and neurons need a surge of energy to form new memories. This research is believed to help in potential treatments in regenerative and developmental medicine and also in treating learning and memory defects.

This single protein responsible for provoding energy to both muscles and brain has been identified as Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERR). Evans’ research group has previously studied the role of ERR in the heart and skeletal muscles.

The study is published in the journal Cell Metabolism.

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What is psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is a way to treat people with a psychological problem or disease by helping them understand their illness. It teaches people strategies or methods and gives them tools to deal with stress and unhealthy thoughts and behaviours. Psychotherapy alone may be used to treat a person depending on their illness and its severity, for any psychological problem or  It can also be  combined with medications. Psychotherapists work with an individual or families to devise an appropriate treatment plan and the duration of treatment, based on individual requirement.

 Types of psychotherapy

Many kinds of psychotherapy exist. some therapies have been scientifically tested more than others. Some people may have a treatment plan that includes only one type of psychotherapy. Others receive treatment that includes elements of several different types. The kind of psychotherapy a person receives depends on his or her needs.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

CBT is based on the idea that we can make permanent changes in the way we behave by shifting our negative patterns of thinking. It  is short-term and goal-oriented. The therapist and patient work together to identify the behaviors the patient wants to change and then come up with an action plan to do so.

Cognitive behavior therapy is generally short-term and focused on helping clients deal with a very specific problem. During the course of treatment, people learn how to identify and change destructive or disturbing thought patterns that have a negative influence on behaviour.

People often experience thoughts or feelings that reinforce or compound faulty beliefs. Such beliefs can result in problematic behaviors that can affect numerous life areas, including family, romantic relationships, work, and academics. Due to the negative thinking patterns, the individual might start avoiding social situations or pass up opportunities for advancement at work or at school. In order to combat  destructive thoughts and behaviors, a cognitive-behavioral therapist begins by helping the client to identify the problematic beliefs. Because it is important for learning how thoughts, feelings, and situations can contribute to maladaptive behaviors.

The cognitive behavior therapy focuses on the actual behaviors that are contributing to the problem. The client begins to learn and practice new skills that can then be put into use in real-world situations.

 CBT is a gradual process that helps a person take incremental steps towards a behavior change

 CBT has been used to treat people suffering from a wide range of disorders, including anxiety, phobias, depression, and addiction.

CBT is one of the most researched types of therapy, in part because treatment is focused on highly specific goals and results.

CBT is often best-suited for clients who are comfortable with introspection. Such self-analysis can be difficult, but it is a great way to learn more about how internal states impact outward behavior.

CBT is also well-suited for people looking for a short-term treatment option that does not wish to take medication. One of the greatest benefits of cognitive-behavior therapy is that it helps clients develop coping skills that can be useful both now and in the future.

 Dialectical Behavior Therapy

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), is used to treat people with suicidal thoughts and actions. DBT emphasizes the value of a strong and equal relationship between patient and therapist

In DBT,the therapist assures the patient that the patient’s behavior and feelings are valid and understandable. At the same time, the therapist coaches the patient to understand that it is his or her personal responsibility to change unhealthy or disruptive behavior.

The therapist consistently reminds the patient when his or her behavior is unhealthy or disruptive and also teaches the skills needed to better deal with future similar situations. DBT involves both individual and group therapy. Individual sessions are used to teach new skills, while group sessions provide the opportunity to practice these skills.

Interpersonal Therapy:

Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is most often used on a one-on-one basis to treat depression. IPT helps in,

  • Improving communication patterns and the ways people relate to others.
  • Helps identify how a person interacts with other people.
  • Guides the person to change those behaviours which causes problem.
  • Explores major issues such as grief, transition period or certain environmental reasons.
  • Helps the patient learn to express appropriate emotions in a healthy way.
  • In combination with social rhythm therapy it helps to treat bipolar disorder

 Psychodynamic therapy: Psychodynamic therapy asserts that a person’s behavior is affected by his or her unconscious mind and past experiences. Psychodynamic therapy helps people gain greater self-awareness and understanding about their own actions. It helps patients identify and explore how their non-conscious emotions and motivations can influence their behavior. Sometimes ideas from psychodynamic therapy are interwoven with other types of therapy, like CBT or IPT, to treat various types of mental disorders.

Expressive or creative arts therapy: Expressive or creative arts therapy is based on the idea that people can help heal themselves through art, music, dance, writing, or other expressive acts.  It also helps college students at risk for depression.

 Play therapy: This therapy is used with children. It involves the use of toys and games to help a child identify and talk about his or her feelings, as well as establish communication with a therapist. A therapist can sometimes better understand a child’s problems by watching or listening to parents about how he or she plays.

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The term cerebral palsy refers to any one of a number of neurological disorders that appear in infancy or early childhood. It is caused by abnormalities in parts of the brain that control muscle movements.


 The majority of children with cerebral palsy are born with it, although it may not be detected until months or years later. The early signs of cerebral palsy usually appear before a child reaches 3 years of age. It may also be caused  as the result of brain damage in the first few months or years of life, brain infections such as bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis, or head injury from a motor vehicle accident, a fall, or child abuse.


  • Spastic: the most common type of cerebral palsy; reflexes are exaggerated and muscle movement is stiff  — Spastic hemiplegia is when one side of the body is being affected,  – Spastic diplegia is when the lower extremities are affected, with little to no upper-body spasticity.  – Spastic monoplegia is when one limb is affected.  – Spastic triplegia is when three limbs are affected.    – Spastic quadriplegia is all four limbs more or less equally affected.
  • Dyskinetic: dyskinetic cerebral palsy is further divided into two categories.  Athetoid cerebral palsy which is marked by involuntary, slow, writhing movements and dystonic cerebral palsy where trunk movements are more affected than limb muscles, resulting in a twisted posture
  • Ataxic: voluntary muscle movements are not well coordinated
  • Hypotonic: muscle tone is decreased or floppy
  • Mixed: combinations of the symptoms listed above


  • Lack of muscle coordination when performing voluntary movements (ataxia)
  • stiff or tight muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity)
  • walking with one foot or leg dragging
  • walking on the toes
  • a crouched gait, or a “scissored” gait
  • muscle tone that is either too stiff or too floppy


Cerebral palsy cannot  be cured, but treatment will often improve a child’s capabilities.  In general, the earlier treatment gives better chance  for the child to overcome developmental disabilities and in learning new ways to accomplish the tasks that challenge them.   Treatment  includes

  • physical and occupational therapy
  • speech therapy
  • drugs to control seizures
  • relax muscle spasms
  • alleviate pain
  • surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities or release tight muscles
  • braces and other orthodontic devices, wheelchairs and rolling walkers
  • communication aids such as computers with attached voice synthesizers.

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Arthritis affects the musculoskeletal system, specifically the joints. Arthritis is not a single disease – it is a term that covers over 100 medical conditions. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and generally affects elderly patients. Some forms of arthritis can affect people at a very early age.


 Basically, a joint is where one bone moves on another bone. Ligaments hold the two bones together. The ligaments are like elastic bands, while they keep the bones in place your muscles relax or contract to make the joint move.

Cartilage covers the bone surface to stop the two bones from rubbing directly against each other. The covering of cartilage allows the joint to work smoothly and painlessly.

A capsule surrounds the joint. The space within the joint – the joint cavity – has synovial fluid. Synovial fluid nourishes the joint and the cartilage. The synovial fluid is produced by the synovium (synovial membrane) which lines the joint cavity.

Arthritis  results when the cartilage is wearing away, a lack of synovial fluid, autoimmunity (your body attacking itself), infection, or a combination of many factors.
Types of arthritis

There are over 100 types of arthritis. Here is a description of some common ones, together with the causes:

  • Osteoarthritis- Cartilage loses its elasticity. If the cartilage is stiff it becomes damaged more easily. The cartilage, which acts as a shock absorber, will gradually wear away in some areas. As the cartilage becomes damaged tendons and ligaments become stretched, causing pain. Eventually the bones may rub against each other causing very severe pain.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis- This is an inflammatory form of arthritis. The synovial membrane (synovium) is attacked, resulting in swelling and pain. If left untreated the arthritis can lead to deformity. Rheumatoid Arthritis is significantly more common in women than men and generally strikes when the patient is aged between 40 and 60. However, children and much older people may also be affected.
  • Infectious arthritis (septic arthritic)- An infection in the synovial fluid and tissues of a joint. It is usually caused by bacteria, but could also be caused by fungi or viruses. Bacteria, fungi or viruses may spread through the bloodstream from infected tissue nearby, and infect a joint. Most susceptible people are those who already have some form of arthritis and develop an infection that travels in the bloodstream.
  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA)- means arthritis that affects a person aged 16 or less. JRA can be various forms of arthritis; it basically means that a child has it. There are three main types:

1. Pauciarticular JRA, the most common and mildest. The child experiences pain in up to 4 joints.
2. Polyarticular JRA affects more joints and is more severe. As time goes by it tends to get worse.
3. Systemic JRA is the least common. Pain is experienced in many joints. It can spread to organs. This can be the most serious JRA.

The signs and symptoms of arthritis

The symptoms of arthritis depend on the type of arthritis, for example:

  • Osteoarthritis- The symptoms develop slowly and get worse as time goes by. There is pain in a joint, either during or after use, or after a period of inactivity. There will be tenderness when pressure is applied to the joint. The joint will be stiff, especially first thing in the morning. The patient may find it harder to use the joint – it loses its flexibility. Some patients experience a grating sensation when they use the joint. Hard lumps, or bone spurs may appear around the joint. In some cases the joint might swell. The most common affected joints are in the hips, hands, knees and spine.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis- The patient often finds the same joints in each side of the body are painfully swollen, inflamed, and stiff. The fingers, arms, legs and wrists are most commonly affected. Symptoms are usually worst on waking up in the morning and the stiffness can last for 30 minutes at this time. The joint is tender when touched. Hands may be red and puffy. There may be rheumatoid nodules (bumps of tissue under the skin of the patient’s arms). Many patients with rheumatoid arthritis feel tired most of the time. Weight loss is common.The smaller joints are usually noticeably affected first. Experts say patients with rheumatoid arthritis have problems with several joints at the same time. As the arthritis progresses it spreads from the smaller joints in your hands, wrists, ankles and feet to your elbows, knees, hips, neck, shoulders and jaw.
  • Infectious arthritis- The patient has a fever, joint inflammation and swelling. He will feel tenderness and/or a sharp pain. Often these symptoms are linked to an injury or another illness. Most commonly affected areas are the knee, shoulder, elbow, wrist and finger. In the majority of cases, just one joint is affected.
  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis- The patient is a child. He will experience intermittent fevers which tend to peak in the evening and then suddenly disappear. His appetite will be poor and he will lose weight. There may be blotchy rashes on his arms and legs. Anemia is also common. The child may limp or have a sore wrist, finger, or knee. A joint may suddenly swell and stay larger than it usually is. The child may experience a stiff neck, hips or some other joint.


Physical therapy and occupational therapy for arthritis

Physical therapy and occupational therapy help maintain joint mobility and range of motion. How much therapy you need, and what kind of therapy will depend on many factors, such as the severity and type of arthritis you have, your age, and your general state of health.

People with arthritis will often avoid moving the affected joint because of the pain. A physical therapist can help the patient work out the joint stiffness without damaging it. In order to perform your daily activity the physical therapist will help you achieve a good range of motion. This may involve building strength in the muscles that surround the affected joint – stronger muscles help stabilize a weakened joint. You will also be taught the best way to move from one position to another, as well as learning how to use such walking aids as crutches, a cane or a walker, if you need one.

Occupational therapy can teach you how to reduce the strain on your joints as you go about your daily activities. The occupational therapist can help you modify your home and workplace so that your movements do not aggravate your arthritis. You may need a splint for your hands or wrists, as well as aids for dressing, housekeeping, work activities, driving and washing/bathing yourself.

An occupational and/or physical therapist can make an enormous difference to your quality of life if you suffer from arthritis. You will learn how and when to rest – rest is crucial for treating inflammation and pain, especially when many joints are affected and you feel tired.

Local pain can be relieved with ice packs or heating pads. Ultrasound and hot packs provide deep heat which relieves localized pain and relaxes muscle spasm around the affected joint. You may find that a warm bath/shower makes it easier for you to exercise afterwards.

Physical activity can improve arthritis symptoms – doctors warn that inactivity could harm the health of most patients with arthritis or some kind of rheumatic disease. Inactivity raises the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes type 2. Muscles become weaker with no exercise, joints become stiffer, and the patient’s tolerance for pain decreases. Balance problems may also become worse.

Medications for arthritis

  • NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for arthritis patients.  At a higher dose – NSAIDs also help reduce joint inflammation. There are three main types of NSAIDs and they all work by blocking prostaglandins – hormone-like substances that trigger pain, inflammation, muscle cramps and fever.
  • Salicylates – includes Aspirin which continues to be the preferred medication of many doctors and patients. Patients need to consult their doctor if they plan to take aspirin more than just occasionally. Long term high dosage usage of aspirin carries with it a significant risk of serious undesirable side effects, such as kidney problems and gastrointestinal bleeding. For effective control of arthritis pain and inflammation frequent large doses are needed.
  • Glucocorticoidsare anti-inflammatory steroids and are very effective at combating inflammation and can be extremely helpful when used properly. The patient needs to consider the potential for undesirable side-effects with this type of drug.
  • Anti-malarials, such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are commonly used for treating mild inflammatory arthritis.
  • Minocycline- an antibiotic that is sometimes used as antibiotic therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Its use is controversial.
  • Sulfasalazine- commonly used for many types of inflammatory arthritis. Sulfasalazine is a sulfa derivative.
  • Methotrexate- works by blocking the metabolism of rapidly dividing cells. It is commonly used for treating more serious types of inflammatory arthritis.
  • Azathioprine- used for severe forms of inflammatory arthritis. Azathioprine also blocks the metabolism of rapidly dividing cells.
  • Gout medications- some physicians may use gout medications to treat some forms of arthritis.
  • Leflunomide- used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. It also blocks cell metabolism.
  • Cyclosporine- an immunosuppressant drug – it makes your immune system less aggressive.Cyclosporine is usually used in combination with methotrexate for arthritis patients.

Diet and bodyweight impact on arthritis

 Eating a well-balanced diet is vital when you have arthritis.Not only will you be receiving critical nutrients, you will also be either maintaining or arriving more quickly at a healthy bodyweight. If you are overweight you will be adding extra pressure on weight-bearing joints. Many patients have found that losing just a few pounds made a significant difference to their quality of life.

You should make sure you are eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, as well as whole grains. Omega-3 essential fatty acids are thought to relieve to some extent the symptoms of arthritis. A common source of Omega-3 fatty acids is oily fish, such as sardines, herring, trout, and salmon.

  • Help maintain normal joint movement
  • Increase muscle flexibility and strength
  • Help maintain weight to reduce pressure on joints
  • Help keep bone and cartilage tissue strong and healthy
  • Improve endurance and cardiovascular fitness

ஆர்த்ரைட்டிஸ் அல்லது மூட்டு வலி அல்லது மூட்டு அழர்சி என்பது எலும்பு மண்டலத்தை சேர்ந்த தசைகளை பாதிக்கும் ஒரு நோயாகும். 
பொதுவாக மூட்டு வலி என்பது ஒரே ஒரு நோயல்ல. இது 100 மருத்துவ பிரச்சனைகளை உள்ளடகிய ஒன்றாகும்.

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